Chinese Grammar Features, 中国的语法特点
Although the Chinese language is not particularly easy for the Western world, Chinese grammar is simpler than you might think.
With minor exceptions, the Chinese Grammar don’t have conjugations, declensions or other linguistic inflections. Functions such as the plural, case or tenses are determined by the context, auxiliary particles, prepositions, classifiers…
In my opinion, Chinese Grammar is similar to the castilian and english grammar. A small mix of both, although the Chinese Grammar has special features and characteristics, of course.
For example, a prominent feature of Chinese Grammar is the verb serialization, that means two verbs are concatenated without one is subordinate to another. The verbal serialization is typically manifested in two ways: verbal complements, which appear after the main verb, and coverbos, appearing before the main verb.
Then, aparently , we could think the Chinese Grammar is so simple but as in other languages the Chinese Grammar has developed high levels of complexity in other respects.
Chinese Grammar Characteristics, 中国的语法特点
- In its most widespread use known six stop consonants (p, b, t, d, kg), three affricates (tc, ts, tz), six fricatives (f, c, s, s, z, X), three nasal (m, n, o) a side (l) and two semi-vowels (j, w). Phonetically b, d, g are voiceless and unaspirated, p, t, k are strongly aspirated consonants. All stops are labialized.
- There are 6 vowels: i, e, a, o, u, ü
- His tone system is relatively simple. There are four tones: Like high up, low down and then up, down. The tones sandhi standard requires that in some cases where two tones are followed by the second one it is neutralized.
- The modern Chinese Grammar distinguish between the following words: nouns, pronouns, numbers and measurements, pagers, particles and verbs (transitive, intransitive, stative, resultativos, assistants and coverbos).
- From ancient times to the language the words are monosyllabic. As combinations of syllables are reduced, many words match and confusions are inevitable. To try to avoid for some time a trend that is supported by specifying some other character, something like in Spanish develops if we say his (home) you given the confusion of the third person pronoun. The two characters together systematically eventually become disyllabic. When the joints are longer, they can be more complex concepts. The base is always a correspondence–syllable word meaning: Zhōngwén 中文 (“Chinese language”). With the combination of two complete characters were born some two-syllable words: 钢笔 Gāngbǐ (“steel–brush”), which is the pen. But the words of three or four characters are becoming more frequent.
- The ease of use of the vocabulary is based on the derivation. From some keywords an extensive list derived from those created. Thus, from the ideogram work 工 Gōng, 工作 gongzuo forms (“work–do”, ie “work”), 工厂 Gōngchǎng (“job–protection,” ie “factory”) …
- The Chinese language uses sentences consist of four characters. This lapidary say is particularly popular in the dedications, congratulations …: 南 船 北 马 Nán mǎ bei chuan “the boat south to the north, the horse.”
- Chinese Grammar form the plural morpheme by 们 Men, but the suffix is not bound to the form of the singular word, but the phrase, almost like another word that indicates plurality.
- Adjectives derived from verbs. That is, they are verbs with names such regain meaning.
- The verbs are invariable. Some added signs, front or back may indicate aspect or time. The notion of the verb is not as rigorous as in other languages: an adjective can perform it.
- No morphological inflection. No signs that distinguish one type of other words. The meanings of sentences in Chinese Grammar depend on the logical order of the sentence (which is the SUBJECT + VERB + ACCESSORIES), sometimes accompanied by some signs that indicate the type of supplement or the tense of a verb. Rather supplements, however, are placed before the verb. So the word can take a function or meaning according to its place in the sentence. It follows that knowledge of characteristics is not sufficient for their understanding.
- Loan words are rare in China, even in the technical vocabulary. Not so much a question of defending the Chinese identity as practice: a foreign word must be writeable and ideograms can not evoke same pronunciation and meaning of a foreign word. Neologisms are created by Chinese composition.
- From the point of view of the dialect of Mandarin Chinese language proficiency is usually divided into four zones: the northern one, which is the most influential, the northwestern, southern and eastern.
- It is written according to the classic rules of Chinese writing, with some modifications. HIs ideographic system is one of the most complex writing systems that have existed, but is protected by a strong cultural tradition.
- Chinese typewriters are very different than languages with alphabet. Workshops are typeset with each ideogram must be sought in a box containing the most well known, while other less accessible and contains additional less frequent. The process seems archaic but the Chinese are credited with the merit of having invented the printing press at the end of the ninth century, almost 500años did before Gutenberg.