Chinese Medicine Info, 中医药信息

Chinese Medicine, Life-Malady Recognition Techniques中医生命与疾病认知方法


中医对生命与疾病的认知是基于中华民族传统文化产生的认识人体生命现象和疾病规律的一种医学知识。中医生命与疾病的知识起源于传说中的远古黄帝、岐伯时代,以《黄帝内经》为标志的中医生命与疾病知识体系的形成至今已有两千多年的历史。中医生命与疾病知识主要包括阴阳、五行、脏象、经络、疾病与证候、病因病机、辨证、治则治法、五运六气等内容。

Entrenched Chinese beliefs and culture have played an integral role in the comprehension of life and disease in traditional medicine. The natural laws concerning life and disease have become well known in the Chinese medical community. This knowledge, as it relates to TCM, dates back to the time of Huangdi (黄帝) and Qi Bo(岐伯) and, with the symbol of Internal Classic of Huang Di, has a history of more than 2,000 years. This system relies heavily on the Yin and the Yang, the Five Phrase, the organs, channels and subsidiary channels, disease and symptoms, the root of disease, categorical identification in terms of causes, the principles and methods of TCM, and the Five Yun and Six Qi.


  • 中医学运用阴阳对立统一的观念来阐述人体生命活动,以及人与自然、社会等外界环境之间相互依存的关系。阴阳平衡是维持和保证人体生命活动的基础,阴阳失调则导致疾病的发生变化。中医学运用五行学说阐述人体与自然界、人体各部分之间的联系以及疾病发生发展的机理,并用以指导疾病的治疗。脏象是人体重要的生命现象,主要包括五脏、六腑、奇恒之腑以及精、气、血、津液的生理功能和病理变化。经络是人体气血运行的通道,有联络全身的作用。经络系统包括十二经脉、奇经八脉以及络脉等,是中医诊断和治疗疾病的基础,也是针灸、推拿等疗法的重要理论依据。病因是研究疾病发生原因和条件的学说,包括外感六淫、内伤七情和饮食劳倦等。病机学说是研究疾病发生发展规律的学说。辨证论治是运用望、闻、问、切等方法诊察疾病,将诊察结果加以分析、综合得出结论,确立治疗的原则。治则治法是治疗疾病必须遵守的基本原则与方法,是中医在长期临床实践中总结出的治疗规律,主要有调整阴阳、扶正祛邪、标本缓急,以及因人、因时、因地制宜等。五运六气是研究、探索自然界天文、气象、物候变化对人体健康和疾病影响的系统知识。

TCM can help explain human activities, as well as the relationships between humans and their environment. The balance between the Yin and Yang serves as the foundation to explain human activities — diseases are interpreted as a disharmony in this balance. TCM utilizes the Five Phrase Theory to interpret the relationship between humans and nature, and among the different organs and systems within the human body. It can also be used to explain how diseases spread.

Organs are the most important biological components of our bodies and can be broken down categorically into: the five viscera (liver, heart, spleen, lungs and kidneys), the six bowels and the other vital organs, in addition to the jing, xie (blood), qi (breathing) and jinye (bodily fluid). The meridians are believed to be channels running from the organs in the interior of the body to the limbs and joints, transporting qi and blood. TCM identifies 12 “regular” and 8 “extraordinary” meridians; there are also a number of less customary channels branching off from the “regular” meridians.

They provide for easier and more accurate diagnosis and treatment using TCM and are important in acupuncture and massage therapy. Studying diseases focuses on the causes and conditions that diseases thrive in, including the external Six Excesses, internal Seven Affects, food and rest. Pathogenesis is a study that focuses on the origin and development of diseases, reaching a conclusion through comprehensive analysis and defining treatment methods.

The principle and methods of TCM, as the regular patterns through long-term clinical practice, are fundamental in treatment. These include balancing the Yin and Yang, strengthening the body’s resistance to germs and pathogens, connotation of superficiality and origin and adopting measures according to the objects, timing and conditions. The Five Yun and Six Qi comprise a knowledge system that explores natural astronomy, climate, and creature that greatly affect the human body or other diseases.

  • 对疾病、证候的认识,中医学有着独特的理论与方法。中医学认为,疾病的发生是正邪消长的表现。《黄帝内经》提出“正气存内,邪不可干”,“邪之所凑,其气必虚”的疾病观。《伤寒杂病论》等早期文献中记载了大量对疾病的认识,隋代的《诸病源候论》中记载了67门1720种病证。

TCM has its own unique theory and methodology concerning the recognition and identification of diseases and their symptoms. Under TCM, disease is perceived as an imbalance between good and evil in the body. The Internal Classic of Huang Di includes the concept of “when righteousness is present, evil cannot enter” and “when the evil gathers, the gas must be false”. In many ancient documents, such as the Febrile Diseases, there are numerous records concerning the recognition of diseases. For instance, there are 1,720 symptoms from 67 diseases that were identified in the Discussion on the Origination of Diseases during the Sui Dynasty.

  • 中医生命与疾病的认知是构成中医学知识的核心,对中医养生、诊法、疗法、方剂、中药、针灸及临床实践的各个环节发挥指导作用。但是,受西方医学的影响,能够理解和传承这一知识的人日渐减少,面临保存与发展的困境,亟待得到尊重保护和发展。

As the core of TCM, the cognitive approach to life and disease is crucial to living a healthy life, diagnosing illnesses, prescribing treatment, prescribing medicine, acupuncture and other clinical practices. Today, under the growing influence of Western medicine, the number of people that understand TCM is gradually decreasing. Now, more so than ever before, TCM is in dire need of professionals and practitioners to preserve this traditional method of medicine.

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