In its mostwidespread useknownsixstop consonants(p,b, t, d,kg), three affricates(tc, ts,tz), six fricatives(f,c, s, s, z, X), three nasal(m, n, o)a side(l) and twosemi-vowels(j, w). Phoneticallyb, d, garevoicelessandunaspirated, p,t,kare stronglyaspiratedconsonants.Allstopsarelabialized.
There are 6 vowels:i, e, a, o,u,ü
Histone systemis relativelysimple.There are four tones:Likehighup, lowdownand thenup, down. Thetonessandhistandardrequiresthat in somecases where twotonesare followed bythe second oneitis neutralized.
The Chinese modern grammarsdistinguish betweenthe following words: nouns, pronouns, numbers and measurements, pagers, particlesand verbs(transitive, intransitive, stative, resultativos, assistants and coverbos).
Fromancient times tothe languagethe wordsare monosyllabic. Ascombinationsof syllablesare reduced, many words matchand confusionsare inevitable.Totry to avoidfor some timea trend thatissupported byspecifying someothercharacter, something like inSpanishdevelops ifwe sayhis(home)yougiven theconfusion of thethird person pronoun. The twocharacterstogethersystematicallyeventuallybecomedisyllabic. Whenthe jointsare longer, they can bemore complex concepts.The base isalwaysacorrespondence–syllable wordmeaning: Zhōngwén中文(“Chinese language”). With thecombination of twocompletecharacterswere bornsometwo-syllablewords: 钢笔Gāngbǐ(“steel–brush”), which is the pen.But the wordsof three orfour characters arebecoming more frequent.
The ease of useof thevocabulary is based onthe derivation. Fromsome keywordsan extensive listderived from thosecreated. Thus, fromtheideogramwork工Gōng, 工作gongzuoforms(“work–do”, ie “work”), 工厂Gōngchǎng(“job–protection,” ie“factory”) …
The Chinese languageusessentencesconsist of fourcharacters.Thislapidarysayis particularly popular inthe dedications, congratulations …: 南 船 北 马Nánmǎbeichuan“the boat southto the north,the horse.”
Chineselanguageformthe pluralmorphemeby们Men, but the suffixis not bound tothe form of thesingular word, butthe phrase, almost likeanother wordthat indicatesplurality.
The verbsare invariable. Someaddedsigns, front or back may indicateaspector time.The notionof the verbis not asrigorousas inother languages: an adjectivecanperform it.
Nomorphological inflection. No signsthat distinguishone type ofotherwords. Themeanings of sentencesin Chinesedepend on thelogical orderof the sentence (which is the SUBJECT+VERB+ACCESSORIES), sometimes accompanied bysome signsthat indicate the typeofsupplement orthetense of a verb. Rathersupplements, however, are placedbefore theverb. Sothe wordcan takea function ormeaning according toits placein the sentence.It followsthat knowledgeof characteristicsis not sufficientfor their understanding.
Loan words are rare inChina, even in the technical vocabulary. Not so mucha question ofdefending theChinese identityaspractice: a foreign wordmust be writeableandideogramscan notevokesamepronunciation andmeaning of aforeign word. Neologismsare createdbyChinesecomposition.
From the point ofview ofthedialectof Mandarin Chineselanguage proficiencyis usually divided intofour zones:the northern one,which is the mostinfluential, the northwestern, southernand eastern.
It is writtenaccording tothe classic rulesof Chinese writing, with some modifications.HIs ideographic systemis oneof the most complexwriting systemsthat have existed, but isprotected bya strong culturaltradition.
Chinese typewritersare very different than languageswithalphabet.Workshops aretypesetwith eachideogrammustbe sought ina box containingthemostwellknown, whileotherless accessibleandcontainsadditionalless frequent.The processseems archaicbut the Chinesearecredited with themerit of havinginventedthe printing pressat the endof the ninth century, almost500añosdidbeforeGutenberg.